Many South, Eastern and Southeast Asian communities have settled in Assam over the centuries. But civilisation in the region did not necessarily begin with the fertile Brahmaputra Valley. Discoveries of stone implements and pottery reveal the existence of prehistoric communities on the highlands encircling
Anthropological accounts say Assam’s demography is marked by several waves of migration. Australoids, the first inhabitants, were absorbed or dispersed by the Mongoloids that ancient Sanskrit literature term as Kirats. The Caucasoids followed, and their four categories – Mediterranean, Alpine, Indo-Aryan and Irano-Scythian – settled in the valleys.